Life Insurance Fraud

Life insurance fraud is a black eye on both life insurance companies and life insurance customers. Both parties have been guilty of life insurance fraud and will be again–especially since, sadly, fraud seems to be on the rise according to most statistical measures.

Research by the non-profit The Coalition Against Insurance Fraud concludes that life insurance fraud committed by all parties costs an average household $1650 per year and increases life insurance premiums by 25%.

Life insurers are most often guilty of insurance fraud in the form of their agents doing “churning”. This is where the agent seeks to cancel your existing life insurance policy and replace it with a new policy that is paid for by the “juice”, or cash value, in your existing policy. Agents do this to earn more commissions for themselves without having to seek new prospects for business. Churning can result in increased premiums for a customer and clearly costs them out of their cash value.

Another insurance fraud practiced by agents, however, is called “windowing”. This is where, being unable to attain a client’s or applicant’s signature on a necessary document but already having that signature elsewhere, the agent holds up a signed document behind the unsigned document, presses it against a window to make the light shine through, and traces over the signature with a pen in order to forge the signature of the client or applicant.

When big name insurance companies have their agents do bad things it makes big headlines, but the fact is that the public is far more guilty of insurance fraud than companies are. And of course making false claims is the thing they do the most, which is why all claims on life insurance death benefit payouts are subject to investigation.

But falsely stating background or financial income information is another form of insurance fraud often engaged in by consumers. They might be embarrassed by their medical history or income, or they may realize that if they tell the truth they will have their coverage diminished or their premiums will be very high. If a life insurance company finds out someone lied on their application they have the right not to pay the claim or not pay the full death benefit depending on the circumstances and the policy.

But there are things that buyers of life insurance can do to protect themselves against insurance fraud, since they don’t have the great investigative resources that life insurance companies do.

Remember, when it comes to life insurance, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. There’s no free lunch.

Save all of your life insurance paperwork, including getting receipts for every penny you give your agent, and never ignore any notifications from your life insurance company.

Life insurance is never free and it’s not a pension plan, although certain policies can indeed become self-funding–but they never start off that way.

Never buy any coverage that you feel strongly is unnecessary, never let yourself be pressured, and never borrow to finance life insurance.

Although it can be part of an investment portfolio, life insurance’s number one role is protection against the unforeseen–and most people don’t need life insurance in their later years. It is intended to be temporary.

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Construction Insurance – Importance and Coverage

Construction involves large number of manpower and huge investments of money. The workers at a construction site risk their lives working at great heights, with dangerous tools, toxic materials, heavy equipment, under tunnels, etc. Hence, construction is associated with high amount of risk for money and lives. A slight negligence or bad fortune on part of the worker or owner may prove too costly. It may lead to a huge financial loss. These unfortunate events require tools, which can bail the company out of the situation. Here arises the need of ‘Construction Insurance’, the risk management tool, customised specifically for the construction industry. Construction insurance is like any other insurance, which is used to protect the various parties associated with construction process.

A comprehensive construction insurance policy covers all the expenses that may occur due to property damage or personal injuries at the construction site. This insurance not only includes the organization owner, but also workers, employees, tenants, sub-contractors, sole proprietors and business partners.

Importance of construction insurance

As discussed above, construction involves usage of heavy equipment, materials, labour, etc. and is more prone to accidents. Since the business stands liable for any accident on the construction site, it is the business owner or the contractor that should pay for the medical treatment charges of the injured or compensation to the families, in case of death of the worker.

Material costs associated with construction are very high. Any damage to the structure or the materials leads to huge financial loss. Insured with the construction insurance, one can seek financial assistance from the insurance company.

The buyers of the flats or the constructed property will have all rights to sue the construction company, in case of faulty construction. In such cases the construction company has to pay for the remodelling or repairing the constructed site. Construction insurance protects the builders from those claims, by providing financial assistance.

Apart from the above circumstances, construction insurance provides wide coverage, providing security to the business in case of unpredicted events.

Four main areas it covers

Construction insurance is very significant in terms of its coverage. It is very comprehensive and is specifically designed to cover every aspect of construction process, to make the business process flexible. Construction insurance covers four major areas of business insurance. They are:

Public liability insurance

Public liability insurance is a general insurance to be possessed by any business which involves interaction with the customers or people in general. Public liability insurance as part of construction insurance helps the businesses in case any damage to third party property or individuals is caused by employees or the tools used in construction.

Employers liability insurance

As the construction industry involves lot of risks, any worker can get injured or die at any point of time, due to the faulty equipment or negligence of supervisors or co-workers. Employers are responsible for the health and safety of their employees at construction site. Moreover, the employees will have every right to sue the owner and claim for compensation. In case of such unexpected events, the employer or the owner can benefit from the construction liability insurance, as the insurance company pays the medical costs or the compensation associated with the claims.

Contractors all risks insurance

Contractors all risks insurance is customised for construction businesses. It provides assistance for contract works of new houses, theft of materials or tools, damage to the materials or tools due to unexpected events, sudden stoppage of on-going works of new houses, owned or hired plants, etc. This insurance acts as a perfect help for the most commonly incurred accidents in the construction process.

Personal accident insurance

This insurance is specifically designed for managers, sole proprietors or business partners. This is useful in the cases, where the person injured can’t blame any other person for the injury caused to him. This is helpful in providing assistance during the period for which the injured person cannot get income.

Construction insurance is very important for construction businesses as the damage or the financial loss occurred is very hard to be recovered. Businesses should realise that the cost of premiums for insurance is less when compared to the compensation costs. Therefore, it can be concluded that, construction insurance is very valuable in making the business sustain for long run.

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The Fireman’s Rule – Law Prevents Firefighter From Suing For Injuries Received While Fighting Fire!

When I first heard the term, "The Fireman's Rule," I thought that I had obviously stumbled upon a rule of law that would be of benefit to firefighters through the country. What I learned after a couple of hours of research was that this rule of law was of no benefit to firefighters, but instead served to benefit the property owner / occupant who Negligent acts or omissions may have been the primary cause of injuries to a firefighter while Fighting a fire. In fact, the Fireman's Rule operates to bar a fireman from suing a property owner / occupant when the acts or omissions of the property owner / occupant caused or contributed to injuries the firefighter received while fighting a fire on the concessions of the owner / occupant.

The fireman's rule is a common law, and in some states statutory, based on a judiciously recognized public policy that encourages people to freely call the fire department for help without concern if they will be held liable to the firemen for injuries that are beyond their ability To control. In other words, the courts believe that a person should be able to call for help when their kitchen is on fire without worrying if a fireman will sue them if he is bitten by the family dog. The courts have held that these risks go along with the job.

In order to understand what the fireman's rule is and is not and how it operates, it is necessary to take a brief look at what the courts have been saying when deciding such cases. In one case, Whittenv v. Miami-Dade Water & Sewer Authority (Fla. 1978), the Florida Supreme Court explained the duty owed to a firefighter by the owner / occupant of the concessions which is the subject of the emergency. The Court ruled that a fireman has the legal status of a licensee, and as a licensee the only duty owed to a fireman was a duty not engaged in conduct that is considered to be either wanton (deliberate, without regard) or willful and / or To warn the fireman of any dangerous defect that is not open to the regular observation by a fireman.

As a basis for the fireman's rule, the Florida Supreme Court explained in Kilpatrick v. Sklar (Fla. 1989) that the fireman's rule is based on public policy. It purpose is to permit individuals who require fire department assistance to call for help without stopping to consider whether or not they will be held liable for any injuries to a firefighter which, in most cases, are beyond their control. In the Kilpatrick case the Court observed that firemen (and policemen) usually enter buildings and structures at unforeseeable times and under extreme emergency circumstances where most people do not have the time nor opportunity to prepare the concessions for their visit. And there should not be held responsible for any injuries that occur to the firefighters as a result.

Lastly, in Lanza v. Polanin 581 So.2d 130 (Fla. 1991) (cites other cases used in article) the Court noted that a firefighter who enters a house or dwelling does so without any guarantee that he will not find a bulldog waiting to bite him. These are dangers inherent in the job and caution should be exercised by the fireman since he is a trained professional. Again the Court emphasized that the policy behind the fireman's rule is to encourage people to call the fire department when needed by limiting the circumstances under which a person may be liable to the firefighter for injuries he may receive responding to and while fighting the fire, or Otherwise handling the emergency.

To summarize, the fireman's rule is a rule of law based on public policy which protects the owner / occupier of property from lawsuits by Firefighters for injuries which receive while on the promotions fighting a fire or handling an emergency. In other words, if you the firefighter are injured while fighting a fire, and you can prove that those injuries were caused by the negligent acts or omissions of the property owner / occupant, you will most likely be barred from recovery unless you can show that Such conduct that led to the injuries was willful or wanton or that the owner / occupant failed to warn of a danger known to exist. All of which is near impossible considering the unlimited variables present in a fire or other emergency. The fireman's rule is no friend of the fireman.

Michael Hendrich, JD FirehouseToday.com

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Travelling As a Hobby

A hobby, whatever it may be is definitely a fun activity and a stress buster. There are so many activities people do in their free time and to relax their stressed mind. The common and popular hobbies are Stamp and coin collection, music, painting, photography, reading and cooking. Among long, long list of various hobby activities, there is one interesting, informative and adventurous hobby which is also one of the most popular and loved pastimes. That is travelling.

For some it is a waste of time and money. They argue to use an alternative and read a book or watch a film related to places to be travelled. For others, there is no doubt that a person gets more life experience by walking a mile than reading an entire book. It’s a feeling of freedom, Freedom from routine and a great experience each time. You can make new friends, get rid of day to day frustrations, and give yourself some time to experience something new.

People who like and enjoy travelling have different options to try every time; a crowded market, historical momentum, a lonesome beach, and high hills and many more. The world is so big and there are so many places to visit. Each has a different beauty, various creatures, culture, speciality, language, history, and weather. The hobby of travelling is a hobby of enduring the beauty of God’s creativity and skill fullness.

If you are travelling to an historic place then chose to get prior information and an authorized guide. If you are going to any adventurous place then prefer to go in a group or with trained a person with emergency box ready with you. If travelling to a new country then make sure of having details and include a list of hotels, food, culture, language, laws, travel options, emergency numbers, currency of that region and other many more minute details. If as a traveller you like to have a nice and a planned trip without any hurdles then you are better off planning your trip.

You can take the details about the place to be visited. A wisely chosen spot, or a package will help you reduce your expense, as travelling is an expensive hobby. The planned trip is very helpful for the lone woman travellers. If you are from those who love adventures then the sky is your limit, although, you have to be smart, and informative enough to handle the experience waiting next step. You can enjoy hill walking, hiking, canoeing, caving, water sports, snow sports, and many more adventures activities.

Travelling gives you a great break from your routine and an opportunity to learn a new culture, old history and make lifelong friends. The people you come across and interact with, will give you a new heritage. They may open up your mind from a particular bend of thinking. Travelling is a perfect educational hobby as it helps you learn a lot of new things in life.

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Four Unconventional Ways to Land a $5K Loan With Bad Credit

A lot of folks got lifted high during the early part of the 21st Century. Times were good and promised to be so for a long time. Fearless about future debt, many consumers over-extended themselves. The economy fell flat thanks in part to this vast over-extension and the banking and mortgage industry that fed off of it.

As a result, loans came due with no cash flow to pay them. Foreclosures became normal. Credit card companies felt the pinch as members defaulted. Credit ratings suffered greatly. Presently, those folks have no recourse to any venues that could offer them any financial relief. A minimal $5,000 bad credit loan is unreachable.

People in this situation do have some options that they should consider while they try to rebuild their financial lives as well as their financial credibility. These options are perhaps not those that they would normally consider, but the times are not normal.

One: Familiar Loans

In one way this is the best scenario to get a much needed cash injection. In another, it could be the worst. Embarrassment is probably the biggest bar to approaching friends or family members for cash to get you through tough times. On the other hand, the terms for repayment can be quite flexible and interest rates can be low or nonexistent. Certainly, a loan such as this does not require a credit check. It would be wise and friendly to draw up a contract so each party knows what is expected.

Two: Salary Potentialities

Should a person in need of cash be to uncomfortable approaching family or friends, they might look to the workplace. Some progressive companies have opportunities for employees who have hit on hard times. A credit union may serve the company and it may be very happy to extend a loan at low interest rates and easy payback terms. If there is no credit union, sometimes an employer can be approached for a loan that can be deducted directly from future paychecks. Sometimes this sort of loan is available to promote loyalty and productivity.

Three: Non-Traditional Bad Credit Loans

Should the previous venues turn up dry, unsecured personal loans are available, either locally or via online lenders. Traditional lenders such as banks are not going to be forthcoming with any help for borrowers with poor credit. Online lenders do not consider credit scores and are usually eager to grant unsecured loans in the range of $500 to $10,000. The requirements are few; having steady employment and a bank account are often enough. The application process is easy and you can usually have cash in your account within 24 hours.

Four: Neighborhood Pawnshops

Do not cringe. For centuries shops such as this have been able to offer affordable loans to people in the community who find themselves a little shy of cash from time to time. Your loan will require security in the form of personal property offered as collateral that is equal to the worth of the loan. You will sign a document acknowledging your obligation. If you do not return to redeem the collateral, the shop is allowed to sell it to cover the loan.

No matter what sort of credit history you may have, you should be able to put your hands on some cash using the outlets described above. Just be sure you do not allow yourself to become a victim to any sort of fraud. Just be sure any money you do get is used responsibly and paid back according to the terms of any agreements.

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Geode Crystals & Astral Travel

Astral travel can be enhanced by working with crystals and their vibrational field levels during your session. But where do you start and how to help? There are many different suggestions for this, as well as different ones will resonate within different people and their energy fields.

A good place to start is by working with the crystals you enjoy the most. If you are not sure where to start, go with your intuition and follow your gut instincts as they will not steer you wrong.

A wonderful way to work with them in astral travel and meditation sessions are in geode form. The best ones I have come across that have the highest energy vibrational level are clear quartz, amethyst, citrine and calcite. It is best to work with just one type of crystal within the geode, but you can combine them in your circles if you wish. The energy field will be a combination of the different types and will have them make a weaving type of pattern within the energy field. This is a very unique type of field to work within, but may not always be the best, as opposed to a single type of stronger vibrational field you would receive with just one type of geode.

During your astral travel session, surround yourself with as many geodes as possible, in a circle, or alternating the type of crystal found within. The more the better, and even if they are small, the geodes still put out a lot of vibrational fields for you to work within!

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Difference Between Employers’ Liability Insurance (ELI) and Workers Compensation Insurance (WCI)

Employers’ Liability Insurance (ELI) and Workers Compensation Insurance (WCI) are two important insurance covers to protect the interests of employees, as well as employers. There are, however, certain differences between the two. Due to these differences, it may result in wrongful litigation and consequently anxiety to parties involved. The differences between ELI and WCI are relating to where they apply and what they cover. We will discuss about them here briefly.

Where they apply

Employers’ liability insurance

As an employer, it is mandatory for you in UK to purchase employers’ liability insurance. Not purchasing attracts penalty under law. In certain situations your employees may feel that you are liable for job related illness/injury which they may sustain and they sue for this. If it is really a case, it may bring in expenses such as hospitalization, financial compensation and the like. ELI helps you under such circumstances.

While it is mandatory for you as an employer to have ELI, your employees need to prove that the job related injury/illness is because of your negligence. Imagine yours is a lumber business. While working, your employees should have the necessary equipment, training and skills to operate them. If you employ them without teaching the safety norms, imparting the training and checking the fitness, and they sustain injuries, it will amount to your negligence as per rules framed under Employers’ Liability Insurance Act and employees are likely to feel appropriate to sue you, because you are liable.

Workers compensation insurance

On the other hand, workers compensation insurance is a cover for the welfare of the employees. It depends on the circumstances that are the tone of relation between employer and employees. Thus, if you are more concerned about employees’ health and safety, you need to purchase this insurance. It does not matter whether it was your fault or your employees’ fault that resulted illness, accident or death, this insurance comes to your help.

Coverage

Employers’ liability insurance

As an employer, you have to go to court of law if the affected employee sues you. You need to pay financial compensation and bear the hospitalization and medication. ELI covers all these expenses.

Likewise, for employees ELI covers the permanent and temporary disability, injury and wrongful death at workplace. It covers the cost of litigation as well.

Workers compensation insurance

For employers, WCI is a Good Samaritan. In most cases, it ensures that your employees do not resort to litigation. However, in such unfortunate event, WCI covers the expenses because of litigation. It covers the financial expenses to be given to the affected employee for work-related injury, illness or even death.

Employees when inured at workplace, under WCI, are guaranteed to get compensation from the employer to cover medical and hospitalization expenses and certain portion of wages. In most cases, it is two-thirds or more. WCI covers the expenses on litigation, by the employee. In general, WCI takes care of the situation and makes sure that litigation on the part of employees is avoided.

WCI covers compensation (wages) in case of a temporary disability for the period of absence. If the individual got permanent disability, and not fit for employment in current occupation, WCI covers the expenses of vocational training and rehabilitation and cost of searching a job, if he wants.

Despite both ELI and WCI are meant to protect the interests of employees and employers, there are differences in the way they apply. You need to understand them and purchase a cover according to the need of your business.

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Rental Property – The Responsibilities of the Renter and the Owner

When you rent someone’s property, it’s good to know how what your responsibilities are in order not to have inconvenient situations. When some people rent someone else’s property they think that they are responsible only for a few little things and the rest of responsibilities should be taken care by a leasing agent. But usually it is vice versa. When someone rents a house or apartment, they are usually obligated to sign a contract where all the responsibilities of leasing agent and renter are fully described. In case if something happens both parties understand what they are responsible for.

Responsibilities Of Renters

Normally, renters bear responsibility for the area that is around their apartment and for the apartment itself. Usually, these are areas inside the apartment as well as their backyard. So this includes common sense responsibilities and rules of maintenance and cleanliness of the area. Such things such as repairing certain parts of the interior or the exterior or painting the walls are the responsibilities of the renter.

But still, this is not it. Renter is responsible for some other things in leasing agent’s house. If something happens with the bathrooms, the renter is also responsible for fixing it if it’s possible. But if such things happen and that renter doesn’t feel comfortable to accomplish this job she might contact the maintenance contractor for proper help.

Renters must know their responsibilities and always show respect to other renters in their area and not cause damage intentionally. Not picking up trash after yourself if you left it somewhere is the same as intentional littering. Renters that don’t follow these rules are fully responsible for their actions and might be forced to pay fines.

Responsibilities Of Leasing Agents

If something happens with that exterior of the building or the equipment is not working properly then it is the responsibility of the leasing agent. Leasing agent is always supposed to take care of his renters and make sure that they are always provided with all the necessary utilities and that everything is working properly in his apartment. For instance, if problems with water occur in the apartment then the leasing agent he supposed to contact maintenance staff.

And also, one more of responsibilities of a leasing agent taking care of public areas. This is usually that surround that area of the apartment, such as grassy parts of the land.

So basically, the leasing agent is always has to take care of his renters and make sure they don’t have any complaints or concerns. If the leasing agent doesn’t pay attention to any complaints that he’s renters might have, this may lead to having problems with clients or with the local housing authority. Again, if the client or the renter is not provided with what he expected and paid for, he will be very disappointed about the maintenance service. In these cases renter might call a maintenance company to resolve the situation and bill the expense to the owner.

So before you rent an apartment to a renter as a leasing agent make sure that both of the above are working fine. A renter faced with this kind of problems, can contact the department of housing and ask them to provide advice what to do in this situation.

In some cases, leasing agents may break their rules of that agreement and disobey points of the contract. The department of housing is usually responsible for enforcement in this kind of situation and if the renters still have complaints, they have the authority to force the owner to provide a remedy.

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Life Insurance – Should You Buy A Rider Or Complete Policy For A Spouse, Child Or Dependent?

There are many arguments as to who really needs a complete life insurance package and who needs some form of coverage in the form of rider. Does you really really need a rider if you already have a life insurance policy? Does you child or dependent really need one too?

To answer this question correctly we must understand the basic needs life insurance coverage meets …

A life insurance policy is basically meant for breadwinners or persons who demise will cause hardship for their survivors. Although there are other reasons why people buy life policies this is the main reason.

Some insurers have certain riders to cater for spouses and dependents. Such riders add term life coverage for such a spouse or dependent. It certainly makes more sense to buy a dedicated term life insurance for such a person if you think it's necessary. You'll almost always get a far lower rate per $ 1,000 coverage for the person in question if you get another complete term life insurance policy.

For the dependent, you really do not need any form of life insurance for a child unless you want to start a foundation in their memory or make a donation to their favorite charity if they pass on. If you're thinking in such lines then you'll serve that cause better by getting another life insurance policy for such a child or dependent instead of a rider.

We can make an exception for rare cases (like child actors) where the family fortunes will be dramatically altered if such a child passes on. Life insurance is a real necessity then. Like I explained when I talked about the main reason for a life insurance policy, such a child shares considering to the family's finances. Therefore the loss of that child will result in the loss of such financial contribution with the attendant consequences.

If you've decided to buy a life insurance for yourself, spouse or dependent, you'll get far better rates if you get and compare many quotes from many different insurers. This is due to the difference in rates from insurers for a particular policy could range from a few hundreds to a couple of thousand dollars.

If you already have a policy, you can also reduce your current rates by getting and comparing life insurance quotes from insurers you did not get quotes from before you bought your present policy.

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Insurance Law – An Indian Perspective

INTRODUCTION

"Insurance should be bought to protect you against a calamity that would otherwise be financially devastating."

In simple terms, insurance allows someone who suffers a loss or accident to be compensated for the effects of their misfortune. It lets you protect yourself against everyday risks to your health, home and financial situation.

Insurance in India started without any regulation in the Nineteenth Century. It was a typical story of a colonial epoch: few British insurance companies dominating the market serving mostly large urban centers. After the independence, it took a theatrical turn. Insurance was nationalized. First, the life insurance companies were nationalized in 1956, and then the general insurance business was nationalized in 1972. It was only in 1999 that the private insurance companies had been allowed back into the business of insurance with a maximum of 26% of foreign holding .

"The insurance industry is awful and can be quite intimidating." Insurance is being sold for almost anything and everything you can imagine.

Concepts of insurance have been extended beyond the coverage of tangible asset. Now the risk of losses due to sudden changes in currency exchange rates, political disturbance, negligence and liability for the damages can also be covered.

But if a person thoughtfully invests in insurance for his property prior to any unexpected contingency then he will be suitably compensated for his loss as soon as the amount of damage is ascertained.

The entry of the State Bank of India with its proposal of bank assurance brings a new dynamics in the game. The collective experience of the other countries in Asia has already deregulated their markets and has allowed foreign companies to participate. If the experience of the other countries is any guide, the dominance of the Life Insurance Corporation and the General Insurance Corporation is not going to disappear any time soon.
The aim of all insurance is to compensate the owner against loss arising from a variety of risks, which he anticipates, to his life, property and business. Insurance is primarily of two types: life insurance and general insurance. General insurance means Fire, Marine and Miscellaneous insurance which includes insurance against burglary or theft, fidelity guarantee, insurance for employer's liability, and insurance of motor vehicles, livestock and crops.

LIFE INSURANCE IN INDIA

"Life insurance is the heartfelt love letter ever written.

It calms down the crying of a hungry baby at night. It relieves the heart of a bereaved widow.

It is the comforting whisper in the dark silent hours of the night. "

Life insurance made its debut in India well over 100 years ago. Its salient features are not as widely understood in our country as they bought to be. There is no statistical definition of life insurance, but it has been defined as a contract of insurance wheree the insured agreements to pay certain sums called premiums, at specified time, and in consideration thereof the insurer agreed to pay certain sums of money on certain condition Sand in specified way upon happening of a particular event contingent upon the duration of human life.

Life insurance is superior to other forms of savings!

"There is no death. Life Insurance exalts life and defeats death.

It is the premium we pay for the freedom of living after death. "

Savings through life insurance guarantee full protection against risk of death of the saver. In life insurance, on death, the full sum secured is payable (with bonuses wherever applicable) whereas in other savings schemes, only the amount saved (with interest) is payable.

The essential features of life insurance are a) it is a contract relating to human life, which b) provides for payment of lump-sum amount, and c) the amount is paid after the expiration of certain period or on the death of the secured . The very purpose and object of the assured in taking policies from life insurance companies is to safeguard the interest of his dependents viz., Wife and children as the case may be, in the even of premature death of the secured as a result of the happening In any contingency. A life insurance policy is also generally accepted as security for even a commercial loan.

NON-LIFE INSURANCE

"Every asset has a value and the business of general insurance is related to the protection of economic value of assets."

Non-life insurance means insurance other than life insurance such as fire, marine, accident, medical, motor vehicle and household insurance. Assets would have been created through the efforts of owner, which can be in the form of building, vehicles, machinery and other tangible properties. Since tangible property has a physical shape and consistency, it is subject to many risks ranging from fire, allied perils to theft and robbery.
Few of the General Insurance policies are:

Property Insurance: The home is most valued possession. The policy is designed to cover the various risks under a single policy. It provides protection for property and interest of the insured and family.

Health Insurance: It provides cover, which takes care of medical expenses following hospitalization from sudden illness or accident.
Personal Accident Insurance: This insurance policy provides compensation for loss of life or injury (partial or permanent) caused by an accident. This includes reimbursements of cost of treatment and the use of hospital facilities for the treatment.

Travel Insurance: The policy covers the insured against various eventualities while traveling abroad. It covers the insured against personal accident, medical expenses and repatriation, loss of checked baggage, passport etc.

Liability Insurance: This policy indemnifies the Directors or Officers or other professionals against loss arising from claims made against them by reason of any wrongful act in their Official capacity.

Motor Insurance: Motor Vehicles Act states that every motor vehicle plying on the road has to be insured, with at least Liability only policy. There are two types of policy one covering the act of liability, while other covers insurers all liability and damage caused to one's vehicles.

JOURNEY FROM AN INFANT TO ADOLESCENCE!

Historical Perspective

The history of life insurance in India dates back to 1818 when it was conceived as a means to provide for English Widows. Interestingly in those days a higher premium was charged for Indian lives than the non-Indian lives as Indian lives were considered more risky for coverage.

The Bombay Mutual Life Insurance Society started its business in 1870. It was the first company to charge same premium for both Indian and non-Indian lives. The Oriental Assurance Company was established in 1880. The General insurance business in India, on the other hand, can trace its roots to the Triton (Tital) Insurance Company Limited, the first general insurance company established in the year 1850 in Calcutta by the British . Till the end of nineteenth century insurance business was almost entirely in the hands of overseas companies.

Insurance regulation form began in India with the passing of the Life Insurance Companies Act of 1912 and the Provident Fund Act of 1912. Several frauds during 20's and 30's desecrated insurance business in India. By 1938 there were 176 insurance companies. The first comprehensive legislation was introduced with the Insurance Act of 1938 that provided strict State Control over insurance business. The insurance business grows at a faster pace after independence. Indian companies strengthened their hold on this business but despite the growth that was witnessed, insurance remained an urban phenomenon.

The Government of India in 1956, brought together over 240 private life insurers and provincial societies under one nationalized monopoly corporation and Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) was born. Nationalization was justified on the grounds that it would create much needed funds for rapid industrialization. This was in conformity with the Government's chosen path of State lead planning and development.

The (non-life) insurance business continued to prosper with the private sector till 1972. Their operations were restricted to organized trade and industry in large cities. The general insurance industry was nationalized in 1972. With this, nearly 107 insurers were amalgamated and grouped into four companies – National Insurance Company, New India Assurance Company, Oriental Insurance Company and United India Insurance Company. These were subsidiaries of the General Insurance Company (GIC).

The life insurance industry was nationalized under the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) Act of India. In some ways, the LIC has become very flourishing. Regardless of being a monopoly, it has some 60-70 million policyholders. Given that the Indian middle-class is around 250-300 million, the LIC has managed to capture some 30 odd percent of it. Around 48% of the customers of the LIC are from rural and semi-urban areas. This probably would not have happened to the charter of the LIC not specifically set out the goal of serving the rural areas. A high saving rate in India is one of the exogenous factors that have helped the LIC to grow rapidly in recent years. Despite the saving rate being high in India (compared with other countries with a similar level of development), Indians display high degree of risk aversion. Thus, nearly half of the investments are in physical assets (like property and gold). Around twenty three percent are in (low yielding but safe) bank deposits. In addition, some 1.3 percent of the GDP are in life insurance related savings vehicles. This figure has doubled between 1985 and 1995.

A World perspective – Life Insurance in India

In many countries, insurance has been a form of savings. In many developed countries, a significant fraction of domestic saving is in the form of donation insurance plans. This is not surprising. The prominence of some developing countries is more surprising. For example, South Africa features at the number two spot. India is nestled between Chile and Italy. This is even more surprising given the levels of economic development in Chile and Italy. Thus, we can conclude that there is an insurance culture in India since a low per capita income. This promises well for future growth. Specifically, when the income level improvements, insurance (especially life) is likely to grow rapidly.

INSURANCE SECTOR REFORM:

Committee Reports: One Known, One Anonymous!

Although Indian markets were privatized and opened up to foreign companies in a number of sectors in 1991, insurance remained out of bounds on both counts. The government wanted to proceed with caution. With pressure from the opposition, the government (at the time, governed by the Congress Party) decided to set up a committee headed by Mr. RN Malhotra (the then Governor of the Reserve Bank of India).

Malhotra Committee

Liberalization of the Indian insurance market was filed in a report released in 1994 by the Malhotra Committee, indicating that the market should be opened to private-sector competition, and eventually, foreign private-sector competition. It also investigated the level of satisfaction of the customers of the LIC. Inquisitively, the level of customer satisfaction appeared to be high.

In 1993, Malhotra Committee – chaired by former Finance Secretary and RBI Governor RN Malhotra – was formed to evaluate the Indian insurance industry and recommend its future course. The Malhotra committee was set up with the aim of complementing the reforms initiated in the financial sector. The reforms were aimed at creating a more efficient and competitive financial system suitable for the needs of the economy keeping in mind the structural changes currently occurring and recognizing that insurance is an important part of the overall financial system where it was necessary to address the need for Similar reforms. In 1994, the committee submitted the report and some of the key recommendations included:

O Structure

Government bet in the insurance Companies to be bought down to 50%. Government should take over the holdings of GIC and its affiliates so that these affiliates can act as independent corporations. All the insurance companies should be given greater freedom to operate.
Competition

Private Companies with a minimum paid up capital of Rs.1 billion should be allowed to enter the sector. No Company should deal in both Life and General Insurance through a single entity. Foreign companies may be allowed to enter the industry in collaboration with the domestic companies. Postal Life Insurance should be allowed to operate in the rural market. Only one State Level Life Insurance Company should be allowed to operate in each state.

O Regulatory Body

The Insurance Act should be changed. An Insurance Regulatory body should be set up. Controller of Insurance – a part of the Finance Ministry- should be made Independent.

O Investments

Compulsory Investments of LIC Life Fund in government securities to be reduced from 75% to 50%. GIC and its affiliates are not to hold more than 5% in any company (there current holdings to be brought down to this level over a period of time).

O Customer Service

LIC should pay interest on delays in payments beyond 30 days. Insurance companies must be encouraged to set up unit linked pension plans. Computerization of operations and updating of technology to be carried out in the insurance industry. The committee emphasized that in order to improve the customer services and increase the coverage of insurance policies, industry should be opened up to competition. But at the same time, the committee felt the need to exercise caution as any failure on the part of new competitors could ruin the public confidence in the industry. Here, it was decided to allow competition in a limited way by stipulating the minimum capital requirement of Rs.100 crores.

The committee felt the need to provide greater automation to insurance companies in order to improve their performance and enable them to act as independent companies with economic motives. For this purpose, it had proposed setting up an independent regulatory body – The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority.

Reforms in the Insurance sector were initiated with the passage of the IRDA Bill in Parliament in December 1999. The IRDA since its incorporation as a statutory body in April 2000 has meticulously stuck to its schedule of framing regulations and registering the private sector insurance companies.

Since being set up as an independent statutory body the IRDA has put in a framework of globally compatible regulations. The other decision taken at the same time to provide the supporting systems to the insurance sector and in particular the life insurance companies was the launch of the IRDA online service for issue and renewal of licenses to agents. The approval of enterprises for attending training to agents has also ensured that the insurance companies would have a trained workforce of insurance agents in place to sell their products.

The Government of India liberalized the insurance sector in March 2000 with the passage of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Bill, lifting all entry restrictions for private players and allowing foreign players to enter the market with some limits on direct foreign ownership. Under the current guidelines, there is a 26 percent equity lid for foreign partners in an insurance company. There is a proposal to increase this limit to 49 percent.

The opening up of the sector is likely to lead to greater spread and deepening of insurance in India and this may also include restructuring and revitalizing of the public sector companies. In the private sector 12 life insurance and 8 general insurance companies have been registered. A host of private insurance companies operating in both life and non-life segments have started selling their insurance policies since 2001

Mukherjee Committee

Immediately after the publication of the Malhotra Committee Report, a new committee, Mukherjee Committee was set up to make concrete plans for the requirements of the newly formed insurance companies. Recommendations of the Mukherjee Committee were never disclosed to the public. But, from the information that filtered out it became clear that the committee recommended the inclusion of certain ratios in insurance company balance sheets to ensure transparency in accounting. But the Finance Minister owed to it and it was argued by him, probably on the advice of some of the potential competitors, that it could affect the prospects of a developing insurance company.

LAW COMMISSION OF INDIA ON REVISION OF THE INSURANCE ACT 1938 – 190th Law Commission Report

The Law Commission on 16th June 2003 released a Consultation Paper on the Revision of the Insurance Act, 1938. The previous exercise to amend the Insurance Act, 1938 was amended in 1999 at the time of enactment of the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority Act, 1999 IRDA Act).

The Commission undertook the present exercise in the context of the changed policy that has permitted private insurance companies both in the life and non-life sectors. A need has been felt to toughen the regulatory mechanism even while streamlining the existing legislation with a view to removing portions that have become superfluous as a consequence of the recent changes.

Among the major areas of changes, the Consultation paper suggested the following:

A. Merging of the provisions of the IRDA Act with the Insurance Act to avoid multiplicity of legislations;

B. Delegation of redundant and transitory provisions in the Insurance Act, 1938;

C. Amendments reflect the modified policy of permitting private insurance companies and strengthening the regulatory mechanism;

D. Providing for stringent norms regarding maintenance of 'solvency margin' and investments by both public sector and private sector insurance companies;

E. Providing for a full-fledged grievance redressal mechanism that includes:

O The constitution of Grievance Redressal Authorizations (GRAs) comprising one judicial and two technical members to deal with complaints / claims of policyholders against insurers (the GRAs are expected to replace the present system of insurer appointed Ombudsman);

O Appointment of adjudicating officers by the IRDA to determine and levy penalies on defaulting insurers, insurance intermediaries and insurance agents;

O Providing for an appeal against the decisions of the IRDA, GRAs and adjudicating officers to an Insurance Appellate Tribunal (IAT) concluding a judge (sitting or retired) of the Supreme Court / Chief Justice of a High Court as presiding officer and two other members Having sufficient experience in insurance matters;

O Providing for a statutory appeal to the Supreme Court against the decisions of the IAT.

LIFE & NON-LIFE INSURANCE – Development and Growth!

The year 2006 turned out to be a momentous year for the insurance sector as regulator the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority Act, laid the foundation for free pricing general insurance from 2007, while many companies announced plans to attack into the sector.

Both domestic and foreign players robustly pursued their long-pending demand for increasing the FDI limit from 26 per cent to 49 per cent and towards the fag end of the year, the Government sent the Comprehensive Insurance Bill to Group of Ministers for consideration amid strong reservation From Left parties. The Bill is likely to be taken up in the Budget session of Parliament.

The infiltration rates of health and other non-life insurances in India are well below the international level. These facts indicate immunity growth potential of the insurance sector. The hike in FDI limit to 49 per cent was proposed by the Government last year. This has not been operationalized as legislative changes are required for such hike. Since opening up of the insurance sector in 1999, foreign investments of Rs. 8.7 billion have tipped into the Indian market and 21 private companies have been granted licenses.

The involvement of the private insurers in various industry segments has increased on account of both their capturing a part of the business which was earlier underwritten by the public sector insurers and also creating additional business boulevards. To this effect, the public sector insurers have been unable to draw upon their inherent strengths to capture additional premium. Of the growth in premium in 2004-05, 66.27 per cent has been captured by the private insurers despite having 20 per cent market share.

The life insurance industry recorded a premium income of Rs.82854.80 crore during the financial year 2004-05 as against Rs.66653.75 crore in the previous financial year, recording a growth of 24.31 per cent. The contribution of first year premium, single premium and renewal premium to the total premium was Rs.15881.33 crore (19.16 per cent); Rs.10336.30 crore (12.47 per cent); And Rs.56637.16 crore (68.36 per cent), respectively. In the year 2000-01, when the industry was opened up to the private players, the life insurance premium was Rs.34,898.48 crore which constituted of Rs. 6996.95 crore of first year premium, Rs. 25191.07 crore of renewal premium and Rs. 2740.45 crore of single premium. Post opening up, single premium had declined from Rs.9, 194.07 crore in the year 2001-02 to Rs.5674.14 crore in 2002-03 with the withdrawal of the guaranteed return policies. Although it went up marginally in 2003-04 to Rs.5936.50 crore (4.62 per cent growth) 2004-05, however, witnessed a significant shift with the single premium income rising to Rs. 10336.30 crore showing 74.11 per cent growth over 2003-04.

The size of life insurance market increased on the strength of growth in the economy and concomitant increase in per capita income. This resulted in a favorable growth in total premium both for LIC (18.25 per cent) and to the new insurers (147.65 per cent) in 2004-05. The higher growth for the new insurers is to be viewed in the context of a low base in 2003- 04. However, the new insurers have improved their market share from 4.68 in 2003-04 to 9.33 in 2004-05.

The segment wise break up of fire, marine and miscellaneous segments in case of the public sector insurers was Rs.2411.38 crore, Rs.982.99 crore and Rs.10578.59 crore, ie, a growth of (-) 1.43 per cent, 1.81 per cent And 6.58 per cent. The public sector insurers reported growth in Motor and Health segments (9 and 24 per cent). These segments accounted for 45 and 10 per cent of the business underwritten by the public sector insurers. Fire and "Others" accounted for 17.26 and 11 per cent of the premium underwritten. Aviation, Liability, "Others" and Fire recorded negative growth of 29, 21, 3.58 and 1.43 per cent. In no other country that opened at the same time as India have foreign companies been able to grab a 22 per cent market share in the life segment and about 20 per cent in the general insurance segment. The share of foreign insurers in other competitive Asian markets is not more than 5 to 10 per cent.

The life insurance sector grew new premium at a rate not seen before while the general insurance sector grew at a faster rate. Two new players entered into life insurance – Shriram Life and Bharti Axa Life – taking the total number of life players to 16. There was one new entrant to the non-life sector in the form of a standard health insurance company – Star Health and Allied Insurance, taking the non-life players to 14.

A large number of companies, mostly nationalized banks (about 14) such as Bank of India and Punjab National Bank, have announced plans to enter the insurance sector and some of them have also formed joint ventures.

The proposed change in FDI cap is part of the comprehensive amendments to insurance laws – The Insurance Act of 1999, LIC Act, 1956 and IRDA Act, 1999. After the proposed amendments in the insurance laws LIC would be able to maintain reserves while insurance companies Would be able to raise resources other than equity.

About 14 banks are in queue to enter insurance sector and the year 2006 saw several joint venture announcements while others scout partners. Bank of India has teamed up with Union Bank and Japanese insurance major Dai-ichi Mutual Life while PNB tied up with Vijaya Bank and Principal for foraying into life insurance. Allaabad Bank, Karnataka Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, Dabur Investment Corporation and Sompo Japan Insurance Inc have tied up for forming a non-life insurance company while Bank of Maharashtra has tied up with Shriram Group and South Africa's Sanlam group for non-life insurance venture .

CONCLUSION

It seems cynical that the LIC and the GIC will wither and die within the next decade or two. The IRDA has taken "at a snail's pace" approach. It has been very cautious in granting licenses. It has set up fairly strict standards for all aspects of the insurance business (with the probable exception of the disclosure requirements). The regulators always walk a fine line. Too many regulations kill the motivation of the newcomers; Too relaxed regulations may admit failure and fraud that led to nationalization in the first place. India is not unique among the developing countries where the insurance business has been opened up to foreign competitors.

The insurance business is at a critical stage in India. Over the next couple of decades we are likely to witness high growth in the insurance sector for two reasons namely; Financial deregulation always speeds up the development of the insurance sector and growth in per capita GDP also helps the insurance business to grow.

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